## Thesis etd-04242013-155208 |

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Thesis type

Tesi di dottorato di ricerca

Author

VIGLIETTA, GIOVANNI

URN

etd-04242013-155208

Thesis title

Guarding and Searching Polyhedra

Academic discipline

INF/01

Course of study

INFORMATICA

Supervisors

**tutor**Prof. Pagli, Linda

Keywords

- searching
- polyhedra
- guarding

Graduation session start date

17/12/2012

Availability

Full

Summary

Guarding and searching problems have been of fundamental interest since the early years of Computational Geometry. Both are well-developed areas of research and have been thoroughly studied in planar polygonal settings.

In this thesis we tackle the Art Gallery Problem and the Searchlight Scheduling Problem in 3-dimensional polyhedral environments, putting special emphasis on edge guards and orthogonal polyhedra.

We solve the Art Gallery Problem with reflex edge guards in orthogonal polyhedra having reflex edges in just two directions: generalizing a classic theorem by O'Rourke, we prove that r/2 + 1 reflex edge guards are sufficient and occasionally necessary, where r is the number of reflex edges. We also show how to compute guard locations in O(n log n) time.

Then we investigate the Art Gallery Problem with mutually parallel edge guards in orthogonal polyhedra with e edges, showing that 11e/72 edge guards are always sufficient and can be found in linear time, improving upon the previous state of the art, which was e/6. We also give tight inequalities relating e with the number of reflex edges r, obtaining an upper bound on the guard number of 7r/12 + 1.

We further study the Art Gallery Problem with edge guards in polyhedra having faces oriented in just four directions, obtaining a lower bound of e/6 - 1 edge guards and an upper bound of (e+r)/6 edge guards.

All the previously mentioned results hold for polyhedra of any genus. Additionally, several guard types and guarding modes are discussed, namely open and closed edge guards, and orthogonal and non-orthogonal guarding.

Next, we model the Searchlight Scheduling Problem, the problem of searching a given polyhedron by suitably turning some half-planes

around their axes, in order to catch an evasive intruder. After discussing several generalizations of classic theorems, we study the problem of efficiently placing guards in a given polyhedron, in order to make it searchable. For general polyhedra, we give an upper bound of r^2 on the number of guards, which reduces to r for orthogonal polyhedra.

Then we prove that it is strongly NP-hard to decide if a given polyhedron is entirely searchable by a given set of guards. We further prove that, even under the assumption that an orthogonal polyhedron is searchable, approximating the minimum search time within a small-enough constant factor to the optimum is still strongly NP-hard.

Finally, we show that deciding if a specific region of an orthogonal polyhedron is searchable is strongly PSPACE-hard. By further improving our construction, we show that the same problem is strongly PSPACE-complete even for planar orthogonal polygons. Our last results are especially meaningful because no similar hardness theorems for 2-dimensional scenarios were previously known.

In this thesis we tackle the Art Gallery Problem and the Searchlight Scheduling Problem in 3-dimensional polyhedral environments, putting special emphasis on edge guards and orthogonal polyhedra.

We solve the Art Gallery Problem with reflex edge guards in orthogonal polyhedra having reflex edges in just two directions: generalizing a classic theorem by O'Rourke, we prove that r/2 + 1 reflex edge guards are sufficient and occasionally necessary, where r is the number of reflex edges. We also show how to compute guard locations in O(n log n) time.

Then we investigate the Art Gallery Problem with mutually parallel edge guards in orthogonal polyhedra with e edges, showing that 11e/72 edge guards are always sufficient and can be found in linear time, improving upon the previous state of the art, which was e/6. We also give tight inequalities relating e with the number of reflex edges r, obtaining an upper bound on the guard number of 7r/12 + 1.

We further study the Art Gallery Problem with edge guards in polyhedra having faces oriented in just four directions, obtaining a lower bound of e/6 - 1 edge guards and an upper bound of (e+r)/6 edge guards.

All the previously mentioned results hold for polyhedra of any genus. Additionally, several guard types and guarding modes are discussed, namely open and closed edge guards, and orthogonal and non-orthogonal guarding.

Next, we model the Searchlight Scheduling Problem, the problem of searching a given polyhedron by suitably turning some half-planes

around their axes, in order to catch an evasive intruder. After discussing several generalizations of classic theorems, we study the problem of efficiently placing guards in a given polyhedron, in order to make it searchable. For general polyhedra, we give an upper bound of r^2 on the number of guards, which reduces to r for orthogonal polyhedra.

Then we prove that it is strongly NP-hard to decide if a given polyhedron is entirely searchable by a given set of guards. We further prove that, even under the assumption that an orthogonal polyhedron is searchable, approximating the minimum search time within a small-enough constant factor to the optimum is still strongly NP-hard.

Finally, we show that deciding if a specific region of an orthogonal polyhedron is searchable is strongly PSPACE-hard. By further improving our construction, we show that the same problem is strongly PSPACE-complete even for planar orthogonal polygons. Our last results are especially meaningful because no similar hardness theorems for 2-dimensional scenarios were previously known.

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