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Digital archive of theses discussed at the University of Pisa


Thesis etd-10242013-104405

Thesis type
Tesi di dottorato di ricerca
Thesis title
The qualitative characterization of ‘Sangiovese’ grapevine according to the area and cultivation conditions
Academic discipline
Course of study
tutor Prof. Scalabrelli, Giancarlo
correlatore Dott. D'Onofrio, Claudio
  • aroma compounds
  • secondary metabolites
  • terroir
Graduation session start date
The variety ‘Sangiovese’ is a genotype characterized by a wide variation of expression due to its high responsiveness to the environment so it would be possible to obtain in different areas wines with quality levels very similar, though differentiated between them, thus expressing the varietal potential in response to a specific terroir. Although the ‘Sangiovese’ grapevine was well studied, it is not possible to indicate a generalized vineyard model adapt to all situations.These investigations, does not aim to make a hierarchical scale of oenological products of a specific territory, but to provide a way to understand the potential of a territory in order to enhance its specificity.
The research was conducted in three consecutive years (2009, 2010 and 2011), on ‘Sangiovese’ vineyards in five areas in ‘Grosseto’, ‘Pisa’, and ‘Siena’ provinces, involving a total of 17 theses.
The corresponding Denomination areas of wine production were: “Brunello di Montalcino”, ‘Chianti Classico’, ‘Chianti Colline Pisane’, ‘Montecucco’ and ‘Morellino di Scansano’. In the ‘Montecucco’ and ‘Brunello di Montalcino’ area of wine production, several vineyards were chosen. At harvest time, during the aforesaid years, sets of 10-12 bunches for thesis were sampled and subjected to macro and micro-structural analysis, with particular regard to the aromatic profiles determined by Gas–Mass Spectophotometer.
Between the years the 2010 was the coldest while the 2011 was the warmest, one characterized, also, by an advance of harvest’s date. In the year 2009 grapes achieved the highest values of the Ripening Index parameter (sugary content/titratable acidity); in 2011 it was observed generally a better phenolic maturity.
As for sensory analysis of the grapes and for the technological parameters, the effect due to the year appeared much more relevant than those dependent on the site. With regard to the flavor profile of ‘Sangiovese’’s grapes, we can observe how all reports examined are in perfect agreement between the different theses and with values obtained by other authors for the ‘Sangiovese’. Specifically typical proportions of ‘Sangiovese’ are: linalool oxA/linalool oxB, linalool oxC/linalool oxD, linalool/α-terpineol, linalool/geraniol, trans 8-OH linalool/cis 8-OH linalool, trans 8-OH linalool + cis 8-OH linalool/p-menth-1en-7,8-di and 3-hydroxy β-damascenone/3-oxide α-ionol.
Inside of the compounds released by enzymes hydrolysis classes of benzene derivatives and norisoprenoids are present in the most quantity in the samples analyzed, while aldehydes are quantitatively less. Chemical hydrolysis to pH 3 made on aglycones obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of glycosides precursors, has shown that the most represented category is that of the norisoprenoids hydrocarbon and while that of monoterpenols is the least abundant. The year 2010 was characterized by the highest level of the most aromatic families while on 2009 the final concentractions were lower. Il is supposed that the higher temperatures reached in 2009 led to a degradation of the aromatic substances, which did not occurred in the following year.
For a better definition of the aromatic profile we should take into account the transition of aromas from grapes to wine, an issue which remain to be studied. Moreover in this work a particular attention was dedicated to the areas of ‘Montecucco’ and ‘Brunello di Montalcino’ making a focus of the vineyard effect (of ‘Collemassari’ estate) and in the last area (‘Col d'Orcia’ estate) it was studied in detail the clone effect grown in the same site of cultivation.