ETD system

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Tesi etd-07012020-125844

Thesis type
Tesi di laurea magistrale
Listing Large Cliques in Real-World Graphs
Corso di studi
relatore Prof. Grossi, Roberto
relatore Dott. Conte, Alessio
Parole chiave
  • networks
  • graphs
  • clique
  • algorithms
Data inizio appello
Secretata d'ufficio
Data di rilascio
Riassunto analitico
In undirected graphs, a clique is a subset of its vertices which are all pairwise connected.
The problem of detecting all cliques of a graph has received extensive study due to its various fields of applications, ranging from detecting social communities, through the development of integrated circuits, to extracting information from protein interactions and even detecting communities of dolphins in the ocean.
The clique problem is also of relevant interest from the theoretical point of view, since it is one of the first 21 problems to be classified as NP-Complete by Karp in 1972. For these reasons many different strategies were adopted throughout the years to solve it as fast as possible, including heuristics and approximation algorithms.

The version of the clique problem that we attack in this thesis is the enumerative one, as we want to list and count every inclusion-maximal clique found in large graphs.
Nowadays graphs are used to formalize a huge variety of contexts and their size is growing at a fast pace, thus the need to design faster algorithms that are capable to process them in a reasonable amount of time.

One of the first algorithms able to enumerate all maximal cliques of a graph was that by Bron and Kerbosch, a recursive backtracking algorithm which performs a depth first visit of the search tree that it explores, adding one vertex at a time to the clique being formed.
While the authors gave no time bounds for their algorithm, it has later been proven that with a particular strategy for pruning, it achieves O(3^(|V|/3)) time, which is worst-case optimal.
More recently Eppstein et al. proposed a further enhancement on this algorithm, making it fixed-parameter tractable and very fast in practice by exploiting a particular ordering of the vertices.

The goal of this thesis is to specialize the version of the algorithm by Eppstein et al. to find cliques of at least k vertices, motivated by the fact that larger cliques often carry more significant information about communities rather than the small ones.
We design new fast methods to further reduce the number of recursive calls made by the algorithm, practically expanding the pool of affordable graphs to process.
We plug our strategy into the existing implementation of the algorithm by D. Strash and we do extensive testing both on real and randomly generated datasets with different properties to show its practical efficiency with respect to Eppstein's starting algorithm, and how this relates to the structure of the graphs.