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Digital archive of theses discussed at the University of Pisa


Thesis etd-06192013-180923

Thesis type
Tesi di dottorato di ricerca
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Thesis title
European Union: Issues of Serbia, Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Objectives of Entering the European Union, Current Possibilities and Perspectives
Academic discipline
Course of study
tutor Prof. Landuyt, Ariane
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • corruption
  • European Union
  • judicial reform
  • Kosovo
  • Serbia
  • transition
  • Western Balkans
Graduation session start date
Release date
Facing new changes in early 90th, with a fall of Communism, region of Western Balkan enter in to the new era of transition and integration process toward European Union (EU).
Each of the republics of former Yugoslavia began with this process with different perspectives, different social and economical conditions and each of them made a different progress on its way toward EU. Slovenia joined Union firs and recently Croatia will reach full membership, rest of the countries still struggling to reach some of the main condition that EU is putting in front of the transition countries.
For countries that were a subject of following dissertation, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Kosovo, fight against corruption and judicial reform will remain on of the main obstacles in their integration process.
Each of these countries has its own reforms regarding this process but even after years of institutional reform and legislations reforms progress has been modest.
Still surveys show that perception of corruption in these countries is high and that is affecting almost all arias of life. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Kosovo established institutional presumptions for fight against corruption in form of specialized agencies for fight against corruption but still results on field remain insufficient.
Collaboration and exchange of good practices in region remain on low level even if each of the countries is going through the similar process of reforms. Most of these reforms are not result of general public debate but in general imposed solution by representatives of international community without much consultation with local representatives.
On the other side political leaders in region still suffering from the lack of accountability to lead reforms and political and ethical division among political subjects are not contributing in demanding process such is integration process toward membership in EU. In reality citizens of these countries frequently have no full confidence in capacity of their political leader that are no rarely subject of law enforcement investigations under the suspicions for committing some serious crimes.
Just like fight against corruption is not giving so far adequate results, judicial reform is still suffering from lack of efficiency and still non enjoying full confidence form general public.
One of the main challenges that this countries are facing, when it comes to judicial system, is independence of judicial authority from legislature authority.
All three countries established independent council for electing future judges and prosecutors but in most of the cases parliament or president has to confirm decisions from this council.
In practice this is slowing down many investigations against high ranking politicians that are under suspect of transgressing law and rules.
Still judicial authority has no financial autonomy and has a legal framework that could be constantly under threat of changing it at the expense of independence.
At the end one of the rare common aspirations of these countries is their European future. They are all verbally committed to join EU and transition and integration process will remain one of the major EU foreign policy tool in Balkan. However policy of “stick and carrot” should be revised in more individual approach and regional cooperation and exchange of experience should take place.