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Tesi etd-05172018-002632


Thesis type
Tesi di dottorato di ricerca
Author
ESPOSITO, GIUSEPPE
URN
etd-05172018-002632
Title
The use of Geomatics for the analysis of mass wasting processes in volcaniclastic coastal cliffs of the Flegrean area (Italy)
Settore scientifico disciplinare
GEO/04
Corso di studi
SCIENZE DELLA TERRA
Supervisors
tutor Prof. Salvini, Riccardo
correlatore Dott. Sacchi, Marco
Parole chiave
  • coastal cliff
  • retreat
  • weathering
  • erosion
  • landslide
  • lidar
  • digital photogrammetry
  • geomorphic monitoring
  • geotechnical characterization
  • Campi Flegrei
Data inizio appello
25/05/2018;
Consultabilità
Parziale
Data di rilascio
25/05/2021
Riassunto analitico
Many coastal cliffs forming part of the Italian coastlines are affected by retreat processes, mainly
occurring through landslides and surface weathering. Coastal landslides represent a serious risk for
population living in littoral settlements, where a massive urbanization occurred in the last decades.
New tourist settlements, railway networks and roads were built in these areas, altering in several cases
the natural evolution of coastal dynamics. Actually, 28.4% of Italians live here with an average
density of 400 inhabitants per square kilometer.
The coastal sector of the Campi Flegrei volcanic area (southern Italy) is partially formed by sea cliffs.
These are made by volcaniclastic deposits and are affected by rapid recession since their origin.
Several cliffs consist in remnants of ancient volcanic edifices formed in the last 15 ka, during
explosive eruptions of the Campi Flegrei volcanic activity. The lacking of entire flanks of edifices
located in the actual coastal area highlights the rapid action characterizing dismantling processes. In
order to achieve a quantitative knowledge about mass movements that are contributing to the
geomorphic evolution of the volcaniclastic coastal cliffs, a multidisciplinary approach mainly based
on the use of geomatic techniques and secondarily on geotechnical laboratory tests is applied in this
thesis. The study is articulated in a large-scale analysis, aimed at characterizing slope failures
occurring in the whole Flegrean area and along the coastline, as well as in site-specific analyses
focused on two representative coastal cliffs: the “Baia dei Porci” and “Torrefumo” cliffs. Both sites
are located in the municipality of Monte di Procida, in the western sector of Campi Flegrei. The longterm
geomorphic evolution of the Torrefumo cliff (1956 - 2008) was investigated by comparing
digital elevation models (DEM) derived from aerial images and airborne lidar data. This activity
allowed quantifying volumetric changes, retreat rates and maximum retreat of the cliff top. Shortterm
geomorphic changes (2013 - 2016) that affected this cliff were detected by comparing 3D point
clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanning technique (TLS). In this way, a cliff failures inventory
map was developed and the magnitude-frequency distribution of events was calculated. Further
statistical analyses of the inventory data, together with field and topographic observations, showed
that different geomorphic processes are contributing to the cliff retreat, and vary according to the
outcropping lithotypes. The TLS-based analysis was also used to develop a cliff failure susceptibility
map through the application of a bivariate statistical method. In this site, laboratory tests were also
performed on representative rock samples of the outcropping lithologies, collected at the base of the
cliff. These tests allowed verifying mechanical strength of rocks, resistance to weathering and
mineralogical composition of the altered rock surfaces.
At the Baia dei Porci cliff site, a large landslide displacing about 40,000 m3 of volcaniclastic deposits
occurred in October 2013. The landslide was monitored until January 2016 to assess its geomorphic
evolution. In this case, the “Structure-from-Motion” (SfM) photogrammetry technique was used by
performing four surveys with a boat and a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS), as well as a
topographic survey of the ground control points. Comparison of the 3D point clouds derived from
processing of photogrammetric data, allowed accurate identification of areas where geomorphic
changes occurred, and to quantify volumes of material mobilized after the 2013 failure. This case
study highlighted the high potential of the used techniques for accurate monitoring of inaccessible
coastal cliffs.
This research provides a valuable contribution to fill the research gap concerning a quantitative
understanding of erosion affecting volcaniclastic coastal cliffs, and it can be considered among the
first comprehensive studies dealing with monitoring of cliff retreat processes in the Campi Flegrei
area. Insights emerged from monitoring activities and laboratory analyses demonstrate that behavior
of these cliffs is controlled by a complex set of factors that need further in-depth analyses. In addition,
more efforts should be carried out to assess risk conditions affecting urban settlements built close to
the retreating cliff tops.
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