logo SBA


Digital archive of theses discussed at the University of Pisa


Thesis etd-05072013-204815

Thesis type
Tesi di dottorato di ricerca
Thesis title
Academic discipline
Course of study
tutor Ing. Foglia, Pierfrancesco
tutor Prof. Prete, Cosimo Antonio
tutor Prof. Marcelloni, Francesco
  • Acceleration control
  • CNC interpolation
  • Code Reuse and Integration
  • Distributed Control Systems
  • IEC 61131
  • IEC 61499
  • look-ahead
  • real-time interpolation
Graduation session start date
These days, information technology really makes the difference in manufacturing industry. High performance computers allow to realize control algorithms of increasing complexity and high speed reliable computer networks allows the communication between different devices and realization of advanced distributed control applications.
In this thesis, we focus on the optimization of the production lines using two different approaches. First we focus on the improvement of a single workstation of the production line, then we focus on the improvement of the interactions between various stations of the production line..
A typical workstation that can be found in a production line is the machine tool for manufacturing workpieces. Advances in manufacturing technologies allow to increase quality and efficiency in production lines, but also ask for new and increasing requirements on the motion planning and control systems. The increase of CPU processing power has permitted, in traditional CNC systems, the introduction of NURBS interpolation capabilities, thus determining a further increase in machining quality and efficiency. This has posed new and still unsolved issues, such as the need to satisfy multiple opposite constraints like limiting chord error, acceleration and jerk and offering real-time guarantees. In addition, the ability of privileging the production throughput by relaxing one or more of the previous constraints in a simple way has emerged as another requirement of modern manufacturing plants. Nevertheless, none of the existing NURBS interpolators have these characteristics. In this thesis, we propose a NURBS interpolator that is able to satisfy all the manufacturing technology requirements and is able to respect, thanks to its bounded computational complexity, the position control real-time constraints. Such interpolator is easily reconfigurable, i.e. it can relax some of the constraints and can be adapted in order to include constraints that were not originally considered. Performances of the proposed algorithm have been evaluated both by simulations and by real milling experiments.
However, improvements in productivity of a the machine tool can be neutralized if the various workstations of the production line are not properly synchronized. Distributed control allows to improve the coordination of different workstations but its design is challenging. The IEC 61499 standard has been developed to ease the modeling and design of distributed control systems, providing advanced concepts of software engineering (such as abstraction, encapsulation, reuse) to the world of control engineering. The introduction of such standard in already existing control environments poses challenges, since the widespread IEC 61131-3 programming standard is not compatible with the new standard. In order to solve this problem, this thesis presents an architecture that permits to integrate modules of the two standards, allowing to exploit the benefits of both. The proposed architecture is based on coexistence of control logic of both standards. Each standard interacts with some particular interfaces that encapsulate information and functionalities to be exchanged with the other standard. A methodology of integration of 61131-3 modules in a 61499 distributed solution based on such architecture is also developed, and it is described via a case study to prove feasibility and benefits.